Skip to Main Content

Theater Research Guide

Crafting Your Search

Citation Guides

Many article databases and our library catalog will format citations for you. Use these automatic citations to save time, but check to make sure they are complete and accurate. Here are some sites with useful information on MLA and APA Citation Styles.

  • UNC Charlotte Citation and Style Guides: Compilation of links to style manuals and citation guides including MLA, Chicago, Turabian, and others.
  • Purdue OWL: MLA: Online Writing Lab's examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.
  • Purdue OWL: APA: Online Writing Lab resources to help you use the American Psychological Association (APA) citation and format style.
  • Purdue OWL: Chicago: Online Writing Lab resources to help you use the Chicago Manual citation and format style.
  • Images

Citing Articles & Their Images

When referencing images that come from articles, it is perfectly acceptable to cite the parent article.

If you want to specifically cite the image, use the article citation & make the following changes:

  1. Check the article content for additional source information, such as a photographer or illustrator. * If an alternate name is available, use that in place of the article's author(s)

  2. If the image has a title or caption, use that in place of the article title.

  3. After the article or image title & before the journal title, insert the image type. Image types are: Chart, Diagram, Graph, Illustration, Map, or Photograph.

  4. Replace the page range of the article with the page number for the image.

Chicago: Humanities Style


Talbot, David. "Saving Holl&." Technology Review 110, no. 4 (July 2007): 50-56. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed December 14, 2007).


Vermeer, Dura. "High & dry concept." Photograph. Technology Review 110, no. 4 (July 2007): 56. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed December 14, 2007).

MLA Style


Boyd, Clark. "Dogs Tags for Virtual Sniffing." Technology Review 110.4 (July 2007): 16-16. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. [Library name], [City], [State abbreviation]. 14 December 2007.


Rix, Fred. "Dogs Tags for Virtual Sniffing." Illustration. Technology Review 110.4 (July 2007): 16. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. [Library name], [City], [State abbreviation]. 14 December 2007.

*URLs are now optional for MLA 7

Annotated Bibliography

To write an annotation, you will comment, in paragraph form, on the following elements:


Content—What's the book about? Is it relevant to your research?

Purpose-—What's it for? Why was this book written?

Methods used to collect data—Where did the information come from?

Usefulness—What does it do for your research?

Reliability—Is the information accurate?

Authority—Is it written by someone who has the expertise to author the information?

Currency—Is it new? Is it up-to-date for the topic?

Scope/Coverage/Limitations—What does it cover? What does the author state that he or she will cover? What doesn't the book/article provide that would be helpful?

Arrangement—How is the book organized? Are there any special "added-value" features?

Ease of use—Can a "real person" use this book? What reading level is the book?


Sample annotation:

List, Carla J. Information Research. Dubuque, la.: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co., 2002.


In this book, Carla List, an award-winning teacher and librarian, defines and describes information and provides step-by-step instruction on doing research. In seven chapters, she covers the organization of information, information technology, and the presentation, analysis, evaluation, and citation of information. A bibliography, glossary, and index are included. This book is aimed at the college-level student and is useful to the inexperienced researcher.


From: Burkhardt, Joanna M., Mary C. MacDonald, and Andrée J. Rathemacher. Teaching Information Literacy: 35 Practical, Standards-based Exercises for College Students. Chicago: American Library Association, 2003, pp. 57-58 (Exercise 25).

Theatre Writing Resources

Scholarly Resources

It can be hard to determine if an article is scholarly or popular. Here are some things that indicate something is scholarly:

  • It is written by an expert in the field (PhD, etc).
  • The institution where the author works is listed.
  • The article includes a bibliography.
  • The journal might be described as "peer-reviewed" or "refereed"
  • The article uses speciality words or jargon unique to the field.
  • Very often, scholarly articles have an abstract at the beginning that explains what the article is about.